Emotional Intelligence or Emotional Intelligence Quotient is an index of ability to monitor one’s own or other’s emotions. People can base the index to guide their behavior and thinking. Peter Solvey and John Mayer brought up it first, but it did not get enough attention until 1995, when Daniel Goleman published his article Emotional Intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ.

In 1925, Edward Thorndike brought up the concept of social intelligence. He thinks that when people have high social intelligence would also have the ability to understand and manage other people, and would be wisely when they deal with human relationship. (Thorndike)

In 1935 Alexander. W.P, the American psychologist, put forward the concept of non-intellective factor for the first time in his Intelligence, concrete and abstract. Both the intellective factors and the non-intellective factors constitute the intellective system. Non-intellective factors refer to the feeling, purpose, interest, character, need, motivation, ambition and faith, which have no direct relations with knowledge. The non-intellective factors in learning contain lots of aspects, such as: temperament and character, interest and motivation, self-esteem and confidence and so on. (Alexander)

In 1940, David Wechsler referred to non-intellective as well as intellective elements, by which he meant affective, personal and social factors. Furthermore, as early as 1943, Wechsler was proposing that the non-intellective abilities are essential for predicting one’s ability to succeed in life. (Disha Organization)
Howard Gardner began to write about multiple intelligence in 1983, when he proposed that intrapersonal intelligence and interpersonal intelligence are as important as the type of intelligence. Typically measured by IQ and related tests.(What)

Definition of Emotional Intelligence
Emotional Intelligence can be defined as an awareness of and ability to monitor one’s own emotions and moods and those of others, especially in managing people. The level of emotional intelligence can be precisely measured by a score test which is like the IQ test. However, it does not have an authoritative, systemic, and mature test plan. It is usually determined by personal comprehensive performance, or add a certain number of emotional intelligence elements to the test to get a result. Psychologists think people with high emotional intelligence always have the following characteristics: high social skills, extroversion and optimistic, do not easily get trapped in fear or sadness, devote their selves to work, integrity, compassionate, have rich emotional life but not overstep, also whenever they stay alone or be with others, they will always feel comfortable. The experts also believe that whether a person has a high emotional intelligence, depends on his or her childhood education. The value of emotional intelligence cannot be measured, it goes with social men’s whole lives. When people want to have high emotional intelligence, they can get training for it. It needs people to be brave when they face things that they dislike the most. In that case, people can have higher emotional intelligence.
It is apparent that there is not a singular shared opinion as to the definition and views of Emotional Intelligence. However there is a divide between two different views of this subject area. The first view being ‘Trait Emotional Intelligence’. This is supported by Goleman’s model and Bar-on’s test. The second view, supported by Mayer et al (1997) focuses upon ‘Information Processing Emotional Intelligence’ (Goleman, 1998). A number of researchers believe that an individual’s level of Emotional Intelligence is not at a fixed rate but can be improved. Goleman (1998) states that a person’s Emotional Intelligence level usually increases as the individual grows and matures throughout their life. This is supported by numerous studies that prove, as the individual matures and ages, they become more aware and more Emotionally Intelligent on a general basis (Mayer et al, 2000). There has also been much discussion into the topic of improving someone’s Emotional Intelligence levels. Researchers state that it may be improved through self-evaluation through reminding themselves to be aware of both their own and other people’s emotions until this becomes a normal and natural habit of the individual. This is a factor within Goleman’s model of Emotional Intelligence (Goleman, 1998).

Models of Emotional Intelligence

Goleman’s model (1998)

Goleman’s model (1998) is called the emotional competence framework. Goleman states that this model is an adaption of Mayer and Salovey ‘s model (1997) that can be used to understand how actions and talents are used within work life situations. Goleman’s model includes five basic emotional and social competencies:
  • Self-awareness: Knowing what we are feeling and using this knowledge to guide our decision making and having a realistic assessment of our own abilities.
  • Self-regulation: Handling our emotions so they don’t hinder the task at hand but facilitate it.
  • Motivation: Using preference’s to move and guide us towards our goals. To help us take initiative to strive and improve.
  • Empathy: Sensing what people are feeling and taking their perspective into your thoughts and actions.
  • Social skills: Handling emotions within relationships well and accurately reading social situations and negotiating team working situations well (Goleman’s, 2009)

Goleman (1998) states that each person will have specific strengths and limitations throughout this model, therefore certain people will be better at certain aspects of the model than others. It is better to be average across all sections, rather than strive in one (Goleman, 1998).
There have been criticisms of this model that state it is too broad and it brings together unrelated psychological traits (Brackett et al, 2004). This model is known by other scholars as the mixed model due to the broad areas the model covers.

Mayer and Salovey’s Model (1997)

Alongside Goleman’s model (1998), Mayer and Salovey (1997) also developed an ability based model within Emotional intelligence. This was the first attempt made to define Emotional Intelligence and place it into a model in the late 1990’s. This model defines emotional intelligence in terms of being able to monitor and regulate ones feelings and use these to guide their actions (Goleman, 2009). The model splits emotional intelligence into four different categories and components. This model arranges the more basic psychological needs (starting on the left) through to the more psychologically integrated processes (on the right) (Mayer and Salovey, 1997), For example, the lowest level branch concerns relatively simple abilities of perceiving and expressing emotion and the highest level branch concerns reflective regulation of emotions. Each of these components has four different abilities. In order to develop and progress through the model, each ability must be mastered before moving on to the next level (Mayer et al. 1997). Those who have better emotional intelligence will progress through the different abilities faster than others.
(Figure 1.1. Source: Mayer and Salovey)
Figure 1.1 is a diagram of Mayer and Salovey’s (1997) model. Unlike Golemans model (1998) this model focuses upon providing specific skills and does not include capabilities such as motivation as part of Emotional Intelligence. This model considers emotional intelligence to be similar to other intelligences and assumes that people are emotionally intelligent if they have have ability to undertake certain things (Mayer and Salovey, 1997).
This model has faced criticisms. Bradberry and Su, (2006) have criticised this model due to the inability to be implemented and used within a workplace environment.

Emotional Intelligence: Improving Customer Loyalty and Boosting Sales - (Lauren O'Brien)emotional-intelligence-graphic.gif

In the current business environment organisations are finding it increasingly difficult to create a competitive advantage, as well as sourcing, retaining, and motivating the talent they need to be successful (Freedman, 2010). Therefore, organisations are gradually recognising the importance, and the power, of emotional intelligence as a means of generating high performance. In 2004 the Harvard Business Review revisited an article written about emotional intelligence and published psychologist Daniel Goleman, who first coined the term, and formed this conclusion:

"In hard times, the soft stuff often goes away. But emotional intelligence, it turns out, isn't so soft. If emotional obliviousness jeopardizes your ability to perform, fend off aggressors, or be compassionate in a crisis, no amount of attention to the bottom line will protect your career. Emotional intelligence isn't a luxury you can dispense with in tough times. It's a basic tool that, deployed with finesse, is the key to professional success."

This statement emphasises the power of harnessing emotional intelligence, whilst focusing on how it can be used as a tool to improve performance and success within an organisation.

Freedman (2010) claims that emotional intelligence does not only work to improve organisational performance, it also specifically improves the loyalty of an organisation's customers, which in turn increases their number of sales. The principal measure of success within an organisation is concerned with how their potential and current customers perceive them, if their current customers perceive the organisation in a positive way, they are more likely to return, however if their potential customers view them in a negative way, they are likely to reject the organisation. Therefore, an organisation must strive to create a positive relationship between all current and potential customers, which is achieved through the use of emotional intelligence.

A study conducted by Palmer and Jennings (2007)demonstrates the success of emotional intelligence, and reveals that the skills associated with emotional intelligence are in fact worth over $2million per month. Their study was conducted using salespersons employed by the pharmaceutical company Sanofi-Aventis, where they split a group of salespersons into two, where one group received emotional intelligence training, and the other did not. The study revealed that the group of salespersons who received the emotional intelligence training outperformed the opposing group in terms of sales by producing a profit of $2,208,000 on average per month, see figure 2. Additionally, Sanofi-Aventis calculated that they gained $6 for every $1 invested in training their employees to be emotionally intelligent, this illustrates the return that can be made by organisations who actively promote emotional intelligence.

eq chart .png

Source: Jennings and Palmer, (2007)

To conclude, it is evident that organisations are increasingly engaging in training their employees to become emotionally intelligent, with the aim to become more competitive within the global market place. An emotionally intelligent organisation is able to attract and retain customers and clients by creating positive relationships, and better understanding their needs. Therefore, as studies suggest, organisations should invest in training their employees to develop an emotionally intelligent outlook, as they are more likely to be successful, profitable, and sustainable.

Why emotional intelligence so important?Not all the smartest people are most successful in their lives. People with high IQ is not the key point to be successful in life. High IQ can help people get into college, but its people’s EQ that will help people to manage their stress and social life.
Emotional intelligence effects on people’s performance at work. It will guide people to get involved into the social complexities of the workplace, lead and motivate others. Higher emotional intelligence would help people get better positions in their companies, since many companies now hire people after them taking test for their emotional intelligence. And emotional intelligence will help people deal with relationship at work or in their personal lives. People can be able to express themselves better, and understanding others’ feeling. Reducing stress by using emotional intelligence skill can help make progress in both metal and physical health.

Measuring emotional intelligence

There are tests based around both Goleman (1998) and Mayer and Salovey’s (1997) models. The three preferred tests to measure emotional intelligence are;
  • Emotional competent inventory (Boyatzis et al, 2002),
  • Bar-on’s Emotional Quotient inventory (2000) and
  • Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence test (MSCEIT) (Mayer et al, undated).

Emotional competent inventory (ECI)

This test is based around Goleman’s model. This test is comprised of four different sections which are; Self-awareness, social awareness, self-management and social skills. The test gathers self, subordinate, peer and supervisory ratings on twenty social and emotional competencies within the four sections. Survey respondents use a six-point scale to describe themselves or another person on each competence (Cherniss and Goleman, 2003). In essence ECI is mainly meant to measure and highlight two types of broad emotional competencies of the individuals (Mangal and Mangal, 2015).

Bar-on’s emotional Quotient inventory (EQ-i)

This test is the most widely used measure of emotional intelligence. EQ-I has been developed to assess emotional intelligence based upon Goleman’s model (1998). EQ-I is a self-report measure of emotionally and socially intelligent behaviour (Mangal and Mangal, 2015). The EQ-I consists of 133 items and employs a five-point response scale. It measures five constructs that are composite of emotional intelligence competencies and gives an overall EQ score as well as scoring the five composite constructs. The five constructs are;
  • Intrapersonal: Internal emotions about the person themselves
  • Interpersonal: Emotions of peers and other people.
  • Stress management: How well the individual deals with stress.
  • Adaptability: How the individual deals with flexibility and problem solving skills.
  • General mood: How happy the individual is and how happy they generally is.
All the skills come together and the score determines how high the person’s emotional intelligence is. The individual is asked to rate how they feel about statements being true to them. Rating from 1 (not true to me) through to 5 (Very true to me).
This test has been proven to be effective within supportive studies. Van Rooy and Viswesvaran (2004) found that there are not strong correlations or links between cognitive and emotional intelligence. This goes against Mayer et al’s ability based view in Emotional Intelligence.
Although this test has proven effective with studies to support the findings and test itself there are still criticisms towards EQ-i. Due to the test using self-assessment methods, the nature of tests validity and reliability are questioned compared to MSCEIT (Day and Carroll, 2008 and Mayer et al. 2000).

Mayer- Salovey- Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT)

The final test by Mayer et al. (1997) is based upon the same four sections within their ability model (See figure 1.1). Like Mayer and Salovey’s (1997) model, this test treats Emotional Intelligence like other intelligences, that an individual who is emotionally intelligent will be able to undertake certain tasks and will hold particular skills. This is an ability-based test designed to measure the four domains of the Emotional Intelligence model of Mayer and Salovey (1997) (Mangal and Mangal, 2015). The test consists of 141 items, divided among eight tasks. MSCEIT provides 15 main scores alongside three supplemental. There are two ways in which the score can be measured;
  • Measured by consensus: where the score is compared to thousands of other people’s scores.
  • Expert scoring: Through the opinion of a panel of emotional experts (Caruso, Undated).
Although MSCEIT has supportive research alongside it to prove the validity of this test is good (Brackett et al, 2005). This test has also faced criticism, Maul (2006) states that the method of scoring within this test lowers the validity as a counter study was undertaken to compare and test the validity of this test.

Implementing Emotional Intelligence

Boyatis et al (1995) found an Emotional Intelligence programme implemented into degree courses. The participants Emotional Intelligence levels grew by an average of 70% over the course of one year which has increased more over the seven years since implementation (Boyatis et al, 1995). This supports Goleman’s model and statement that Emotional Intelligence is not a fixed rate but can progress throughout an individual’s life (Goleman, 1997). Following this initial research into Emotional Intelligence, there have been further successful studies into the implementation of Emotional Intelligence.
Emotional Intelligence research have been validated by researchers who conducted studies within the area of recruitment and selection to determine which employees would prove the most successful within the organisation and which traits these successful employees held (Holmes, 2007).
L’Oreal is one organisation that has successfully tested Emotional Intelligence within the employees in the business. The way in which L’Oreal implemented Emotional Intelligence was testing potential employees and hiring them based on the score they got within the test. They hired the sales agents that had high emotional competency scores from the test. This test proved a successful method of recruitment for L’Oreal as the employees they hired on this basis sold $91,370 more than employees hired through traditional methods of recruitment (Spencer and Spencer, 1993; Chernis, 1999).
The method of using Emotional Intelligence tests as a form of recruitment has also been used within a leadership context implemented within organisations. McClelland (1999) found that leaders who were recruited based on their higher Emotional Intelligence competencies were more likely to stay at the organisation than those who had lower EI scores. The results of this study found that only 6% of leaders recruited through this method left the organisation compared to the former 50% that left under the firms former recruitment method (Holmes, 2007). The success of this method was also supported through McClelland’s (1999) (Referenced within Cherniss 1999) findings that 87% of executives were successful within the top third of their company performances if hired based on their high Emotional Intelligence scores.

Although these studies and tests have proven effective within organisations, there is still a lack of validity of such measures (Cherniss, 2000). Zeidner et al (2004) states that Emotional intelligence may be lacking predictive validity as the factors that the study measures may just overlap standard personality factors that the participants already obtain.
There are barriers within the research and studies of Emotional Intelligence (Zeidner et al, 2004). One barrier is that emotion, as a definition is usually used to describe subjective feelings. This therefore is difficult to conceptualize in scientific and measurable terms. This questions the validity and reliability of Emotional Intelligence as the term and tests results are questionable due to the difficulty in determining what the test will actually measure (Zeidner et al, 2004). Another barrier that Zeidner et al (2004) identify within Emotional Intelligence is the nature of individual differences in adaption itself. A good theory should describe individual difference in a biological or cognitive process. This will therefore provide the test with a spectrum of success or failure for the researchers to use. However as Emotional Intelligence identifies different criteria for success, researchers are unable to create this spectrum of success as criteria may be broad or may conflict (Zeidner et al, 2004).

How to improve people’s emotional intelligence
Improving your emotional intelligence would help people to get a positive life. Norman Rosenthal has provided 10 ways to prove emotional intelligence in his book, The Emotional Revolution: How the New Science of Feeling Can Transform Your Life, which are listed as follow:
1. Don't interrupt or change the subject. If feelings are uncomfortable, we may want to avoid them by interrupting or distracting ourselves. Sit down at least twice a day and ask, "How am I feeling?" It may take a little time for the feelings to arise. Allow yourself that small space of time, uninterrupted.
2. Don't judge or edit your feelings too quickly. Try not to dismiss your feelings before you have a chance to think them through. Healthy emotions often rise and fall in a wave, rising, peaking, and fading naturally. Your aim should be not to cut off the wave before it peaks.
3. See if you can find connections between your feelings and other times you have felt the same way. When a difficult feeling arises, ask yourself, "When have I felt this feeling before?" Doing this may help you to realize if your current emotional state is reflective of the current situation, or of another time in your past.
4. Connect your feelings with your thoughts. When you feel something that strikes you as out of the ordinary, it is always useful to ask, "What do I think about that?" Often times, one of our feelings will contradict others. That's normal. Listening to your feelings is like listening to all the witnesses in a court case. Only by admitting all the evidence will you be able to reach the best verdict.
5. Listen to your body. A knot in your stomach while driving to work may be a clue that your job is a source of stress. A flutter of the heart when you pick up a girl you have just started to date may be a clue that this could be "the real thing." Listening to these sensations and the underlying feelings that they signal will allow you to process with your powers of reason.
6. If you don't know how you're feeling, ask someone else. People seldom realize that others are able to judge how they are feeling. Ask someone who knows you (and whom you trust) how you are coming across. You may find the answer both surprising and illuminating.
7. Tune in to your unconcious feelings. How can you become more aware of your unconscious feelings? Try free association. While in a relaxed state, allow your thoughts to roam freely and watch where they go. Analyze your dreams. Keep a notebook and pen at the side of your bed and jot down your dreams as soon as you wake up. Pay special attention to dreams that repeat or are charged with powerful emotion.
8. Ask yourself: How do I feel today? Start by rating your overall sense of well-being on a scale of 0 and 100 and write the scores down in a daily log book. If your feelings seem extreme one day, take a minute or two to think about any ideas or associations that seem to be connected with the feeling.
9. Write thoughts and feelings down. Research has shown that writing down your thoughts and feelings can help profoundly. A simple exercise like this could take only a few hours per week.
10. Know when enough is enough. There comes a time to stop looking inward; learn when its time to shift your focus outward. Studies have shown that encouraging people to dwell upon negative feelings can amplify these feelings. Emotional intelligence involves not only the ability to look within, but also to be present in the world around you.

What is the relationship between self-business success and emotional intelligence? And how to improve emotional intelligence in leadership?
How the emotional intelligence relate to one’s business success, this is a controversial argument, however, the article of Daniel Goleman, What Makes A leader, always be an authority in this field. In his research of 188 globalized companies such as Lucent Technologies, British Airways, Credit Suisse and so on, he thinks that beside the traditional essential qualities, boldness of enterprise, initiative or aggressiveness, high IQ, and far-sighted, a good, effective leader of companies also need to have self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skill.
1. Self-awareness is the first essential of emotional intelligence. Thousands years ago, Delphic oracle has already told people to get to know thyself. Self-awareness is the ability to know one's emotions, strengths, weaknesses, drives, values and goals and recognize their impact on others while using gut feelings to guide decisions.
To improve self-awareness

Try to write journals, it will help you to improve your self-awareness. If you spend just a few minutes each day writing down your thoughts, this can move you to a higher degree of self-awareness.

Try to slow down your strong emotions. When you experience anger or other strong emotions, slow down to examine why. Remember, no matter what the situation, you can always choose how you react to it.

2. “Biological impulses drive our emotions, we cannot do away with them-but we can do much to manage them.” (Goleman) Self-regulation which involves controlling or redirecting one's disruptive emotions and impulses and adapting to changing circumstances.
To improve self-regulation

Ask yourself what is your value. Do you have a clear idea of where you absolutely will not compromise? Do you know what values are most important to you? Spend some time examining your "code of ethics." If you know what's most important to you, then you probably won't have to think twice when you face a moral or ethical decision – you'll make the right choice.

Hold yourself accountable – If you tend to blame others when something goes wrong, stop. Make a commitment to admit to your mistakes and to face the consequences, whatever they are. You'll probably sleep better at night, and you'll quickly earn the respect of those around you.

Practice being calm – The next time you're in a challenging situation, be very aware of how you act. Do you relieve your stress by shouting at someone else? Practice deep-breathing exercises to calm yourself. Also, try to write down all of the negative things you want to say, and then rip it up and throw it away. Expressing these emotions on paper (and not showing them to anyone!) is better than speaking them aloud to your team. What's more, this helps you challenge your reactions to ensure that they're fair.

3. All effective leaders must have one common trait, motivation. Motivation can help leader to being driven to achieve for the sake of achievement for their own and everyone else’s.
To improve your motivation

Re-examine why you're doing your job. It's easy to forget what you really love about your career. So, take some time to remember why you wanted this job. If you're unhappy in your role and you're struggling to remember why you wanted it, try the Five Whys (Why? The delivery was late, so the leaflets couldn't be used. Why? The job took longer than we anticipated. Why? We ran out of printer ink. Why? The ink was all used up on a big, last-minute order. Why? We didn't have enough in stock, and we couldn't order it in quickly enough), technique to find the root of the problem. Starting at the root often helps you look at your situation in a new way.

Know where you stand – Determine how motivated you are to lead. It can help you see clearly how motivated you are in your leadership role. If you need to increase your motivation to lead, it directs you to resources that can help.

Be hopeful and find something good – Motivated leaders are usually optimistic, no matter what problems they face. Adopting this mindset might take practice, but its well worth the effort.

Every time you face a challenge, or even a failure, try to find at least one good thing about the situation. It might be something small, like a new contact, or something with long-term effects, like an important lesson learned. But there's almost always something positive, if you look for it.

4. Empathy is the easiest recognized essential of emotional intelligence. However, empathy does not feel businesslike, it does not fit in the harsh reality of marketing. In fact, empathy just ask the leader to think about what the employee’s feeling with other factors at a certain degree. In that case, the leader would make a wisely decision and make the employee feel comfortable and may cause them be more productive. Therefore, empathy is considering other people's feelings especially when making decision
To improve your empathy

Put yourself in someone else's position – It's easy to support your own point of view. After all, it is all yours. But take the time to look at situations from other people's perspectives.

Pay attention to body language – Perhaps when you listen to someone, you cross your arms, move your feet back and forth, or bite your lip. This body language tells others how you really feel about a situation, and the message you're giving isn't positive! Learning to read body language can be a real asset in a leadership role, because you'll be better able to determine how someone truly feels. This gives you the opportunity to respond appropriately.

Respond to feelings – You ask your assistant to work late – again. And although he agrees, you can hear the disappointment in his voice. So, respond by addressing his feelings. Tell him you appreciate how willing he is to work extra hours, and that you're just as frustrated about working late. If possible, figure out a way for future late nights to be less of an issue (for example, give him Monday mornings off).

5. Empathy and social skill are abilities to manage oneself and others relationship. Social skill is not just about be friendly. It is friendliness with a purpose which is moving people to the desired direction.

To build your social skill
Learn conflict resolution – Leaders must know how to resolve conflicts between their team members, customers, or vendors. Learning conflict resolution skills is vital if you want to succeed.
Improve your communication skills – How well do you communicate? If you want to be succeed in communication, you must be comfortable with the different types of communications, face to face, voice to voice, written, and so on.
Learn how to praise others – As a leader, you can inspire the loyalty of your team simply by giving praise when it's earned. Learning how to praise others is a fine art, but well worth the effort.

Goleman’s EQ Test
  • You're on an airplane which suddenly hits extremely bad turbulence and begins rocking from side to side. What do you do?
Continue to read your book or magazine, or watch the movie, paying little attention to the turbulence.
Become wary of an emergency, carefully monitoring the flight attendants and reading the emergency instructions card.
A little of both above.
I’m not sure; I’ve never noticed.
  • You've taken a group of 4-year-olds to the park, and one of them starts crying because the others won't play with her. What do you do?
Stay out of it; let the kids deal with it on their own.
Talk to her and help her to figure out ways in which to get the other kids to play with her.
Tell her in a kind voice not to cry.
Try to distract the crying girl by showing her some other things she could play with.
  • Assume you had hoped to get an A in one of your courses, but you have just found out you got a C– on the midterm. What do you do?
Sketch out a specific plan for ways to improve your grade and resolve to follow through on your plans.
Resolve to do better in the future.
Tell yourself it really doesn't matter much how you do in that particular course, and concentrate instead on other classes where your grades are higher.
Go to the professor and try to talk her into giving you a better grade.
  • Imagine you are an insurance salesman calling prospective clients. Fifteen people in a row have hung up on you, and you are getting discouraged. What do you do?
Call it a day and hope you have better luck tomorrow.
Reassess what you are doing that may be undermining your ability to make a sale.
Try something new on the next call, and keep plugging away.
Consider another line of work.
  • You are a manager in an organization that is trying to encourage respect for racial and ethnic diversity. You overhear someone telling a racist joke. What do you do?
Ignore it—it's only a joke.
Call the person into your office for a reprimand.
Speak up on the spot, saying that such jokes are inappropriate and will not be tolerated in your organization.
Suggest to the person telling the joke he go through a diversity training program.
  • You are trying to calm down a friend who has worked himself up into a fury at a driver in another car who has cut dangerously close in front of him. What do you do?
Tell him to forget it; he's okay now and it's no big deal.
Put on one of his favourite tapes and try to distract him.
Join him in putting down the other driver, but exaggerate your reaction.
Tell him about a time something like this happened to you and how you felt as mad as he does now, but then you saw that the other driver was on the way to the hospital emergency room.
  • You and your boyfriend/girlfriend have gotten into an argument that has escalated into a shouting match. In the heat of the moment, you are both making personal attacks that you don't really mean. What's the best thing to do?
Take a 20-minute break and then continue the discussion.
Stop the argument - stay silent, no matter what your partner says.
Say that you're sorry and ask your partner to apologize too.
Stop for a moment, collect your thoughts, and then state your side of the argument as clearly as you can.
  • You have been assigned to lead a work group that is trying to come up with a creative solution to a nagging problem at work. What is the first thing you do?
Draw up an agenda and allot time for discussion of each item so you make best use of your time together.
Have people take the time to get to know each other better.
Begin by asking each person for ideas about how to solve the problem, while ideas are fresh.
Start with a brainstorming session, encouraging everyone to say whatever comes to mind, no matter how wild their idea is.
  • Imagine that you have a 5-year-old son who is extremely timid, and has been hypersensitive about—and a bit fearful of—new people and places since he was born. What do you do?
Accept that he has a shy temperament and think of ways to shelter him from situations that would upset him.
Take him to a child psychiatrist for help.
Deliberately expose him to lots of new people and places so he can get over his fear.
Engineer an ongoing series of challenging but manageable experiences that will teach him that he can handle new people and places.
  • For some time now, you have wanted to return to playing the musical instrument you learned to play when you were younger. You have finally gotten around to practicing again, and want to make the best use of your time. What do you do?
Hold yourself to a strict practice time every day.
Choose pieces that stretch your abilities a bit.
Practice only when you are really in the mood.
Pick pieces that are far beyond your current ability, but that you can master with diligent effort.
Original test is from http://www.arealme.com/eq/en/

Thorndike, E.L. (1920). Intelligence and its use. Harper's Magazine, 140, 227-235.,
William Picken Alexander, Baron Alexander of Potterhill, Intelligence, concrete and abstract;: A study in differential traits (Cambridge University Press, 1935)

Disha Organization, Study of Emotional Intelligence,

Multiple Intelligence Theory by Howard Gardner,

Rosenthal, Norman. The Emotional Revolution: How the New Science of Feeling Can Transform Your Life (Citadel, March 1, 2003)

Goleman, Daniel, Emotional Intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. (Bloomsbury Publishing PLC: New edition 12 Sept. 1996)

Goleman, Daniel, What Makes A Leader: Why Emotional Intelligence Matters. (More Than Sound 4 Feb. 2014)

Additional References

Bar-On, R. 2004. The Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i): rationale, description and summary of psychometric properties. In: Geher, G. eds. Measuring Emotional Intelligence: common ground and controversy. New York: Nova Science Publishers, pp. 111-142.

Brackett, M.A., Mayer, J.D. and Warner, R.M. 2004. Emotional intelligence and its relation to everyday behaviour. Personality and Individual differences, 36 (6). [Online] Available from: http://heblab.research.yale.edu/pub_pdf/pub64_BrackettMayer2004_EIandEverydayBehavior.pdf [Accessed: 2nd April 2015].

Bradberry, T.R. and Su, L.D. 2006. Ability-versus skill-based assessment of emotional intelligence. Psicothema, 18, pp.59-66. [online] Available from: [Accessed 1st April 2015].

Boyatzis, R.E., Stubbs, E.C. and Taylor, S.N. 2002. Learning Cognitive and Emotional Intelligence Competencies through Graduate Management Education. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 1(2), pp.150-162. [online] Available from: http://filer.case.edu/txs122/ORBH470/Reading/Class%2005/Learning%20cognitive%20and%20emotional%20AMLE%20paper%2012%2002.pdf [Accessed: 1st April 2015].

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Additional Bibliography - (Lauren O'Brien)

Freedman, J. (2010) The Business Case for Emotional Intelligence. [Online] Available at:http://www.academia.edu/1293046/The_Business_Case_for_Emotional_Intelligence. (Accessed: 2 April 2015)

Harvard Business Review (2004) What Makes a Leader? Available at: https://hbr.org/2004/01/what-makes-a-leader (Accessed: 3 April 2015)
Jennings, S. & Palmer, B. (2007) ‘Enhancing Sales Performance Through Emotional Intelligence’. Development, Organisations & People, 14 (2).